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Offshore Renewable Energy in the U.S.: Effects of Noise and EMF on Benthic Communities
October 20, 2020
Assessment of the influence of noise and EMF (energy emission) on benthic communities at a local and larger ecosystem-scale during preconstruction, construction, in the operational phase, and in relation to decommissioning. The key elements of energy emission that need to be considered will be discussed. The current status of knowledge will be referred to and where relevant, techniques to reduce energy emissions will be highlighted, including any known limitations in relation to the benthic receptors (including different life stages where possible).